White Papers

All White Papers


New Hope Rescue Suspension by Colorado

After determining New Hope Rescue violated regulations requiring dogs with communicable disease to be isolated and receive timely veterinary care, the Colorado Department of Agriculture suspended the rescue on November 4, 2021.

Perspective From the Field: Illegal Puppy Imports Uncovered at JFK Airport

“In October 2017, Deputy Chief Bowles first overheard fellow officers complaining about hordes of puppies arriving at JFK on international flights. Brushing it off as a fluke, his mind changed when underage puppies started arriving weekly, even daily, in large shipments of 44 or 48 at a time, as opposed to 1 or 2 passengers’ pets. In response, Bowles drafted a heightened surveillance plan to address these illegal puppy importations, finding it similar to busting narcotics smugglers. He named the plan ‘Operation Dog Catcher.’”

Original Article can be found on the CDC website: www.cdc.gov/importation/bringing-an-animal-into-the-united-states/operation-dog-catcher.html

CDC January 2019 Federal Register: Dog Importation

The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s estimation of the number of dogs imported into the United States and their immunization status. Issued January, 2019.

How outdated perceptions have reshaped the dog marketplace

The perception of dog overpopulation strongly influenced the type of dog preferred and where to acquire it among respondents expecting to bring a new dog into their household.

This manuscript was published in Clinical Theriogenology journal and permission was granted for this one-time use by the Society for Theriogenology that owns this copyrighted material.

Health Risks to US People and Animals Posed by Imported Dogs

A cited listing of various diseases imported into the United States via dog importation: Swine Flu, Canine Influenza, Rabies, et al.

State authorities see disease risk in imported dogs (AVMA)

From the American Veterinary Medical Association. Published November 14, 2019. By Greg Cima.


“Veterinarians with state governments are concerned that dogs and their carriers could bring with them pathogens, especially the African swine fever virus responsible for killing whole pig herds in China and Eastern Europe.

Department of Agriculture authorities think the virus is unlikely to spread from imported dogs to pigs. Still, Dr. Lisa J. Becton, director of swine health information and research for the National Pork Board, warns that the ASF virus is hardy, and while dogs cannot be infected, she is concerned it could survive in bedding or on crates.”

Original article can be found here: www.avma.org/javma-news/2019-12-01/state-authorities-see-disease-risk-imported-dogs

Dogs from Egypt quarantined after one infected with rabies

JOHNSON COUNTY, Kan. — After one dog brought to Johnson County from Egypt tested positive for rabies and was euthanized, an animal shelter is taking precautions and placing the rest of the dogs from the group under quarantine.

On Wednesday, the Kansas Department of Health and Environment said that one of 26 dogs imported last month from Egypt to the Unleashed Pet Rescue in Mission, Kansas, had tested positive for rabies, a fatal viral disease in people and animals.

Rescued Dog from Egypt Tests Positive for Rabies

TOPEKA – On Feb. 25 the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) was notified of a dog in Missouri that tested positive for rabies. This dog was part of a group of 26 dogs that were imported from Egypt at the end of January 2019 by Unleashed Pet Rescue located at 5918 Broadmoor, Mission, Kansas. All the remaining 25 dogs had been placed into foster care or had been adopted in the Kansas City metro area.

USDA: Report on the Importation of Live Dogs into the United States

Report on the importation of live dogs into the United States, USDA, June 25, 2019

CDC Guidance Regarding “Rabies-Free” Importation of Dogs into the U.S.

(see page 727 for charts)

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is publishing this guidance for dog owners and importers who seek to admit a dog without a valid rabies vaccination certificate into the United States. Under current regulations, all dogs admitted into the United States must be accompanied by a valid rabies vaccination certificate unless the dog’s owner or importer submits satisfactory evidence that the dog has only been in a rabies-free country if it is less than 6 months old or has only been in a rabies-free country for the 6 months before arrival if it is older than 6 months…

Rabies in a Dog Imported from Egypt — Connecticut, 2017

In 2007, the United States successfully eliminated canine rabies virus variant. Globally, however, dogs remain the principal source of human rabies infections. Since 2007, three cases of canine rabies virus variant were reported in dogs imported into the United States, one each from India (2007), Iraq (2008), and Egypt (2015) (1–3). On December 20, 2017, a dog imported into the United States from Egypt was identified with rabies, representing the second case from Egypt in 3 years. An Egyptian-based animal rescue organization delivered four dogs from Cairo, Egypt, to a flight parent (a person solicited through social media, often not affiliated with the rescue organization, and usually compensated with an airline ticket), who transported the dogs to the United States.

A canine identity crisis: Genetic breed heritage testing of shelter dogs

On average, purebreds represented less than 5% of dogs tested with individuals most often having three breed signatures identified within their genetic heritage. In order of prevalence at AAWL and SDHS, American Staffordshire Terrier, Chihuahua, and Poodle were the most common breeds identified.

Brucellosis in Dogs and Public Health Risk

Brucella canis infects dogs and humans. In dogs, it can cause reproductive failure; in humans, it can cause fever, chills, malaise, peripheral lymphadenomegaly, and splenomegaly. B. canis infection in dogs is underrecognized. After evaluating serologic data, transmission patterns, and regulations in the context of brucellosis in dogs as an underrecognized zoonosis, we concluded that brucellosis in dogs remains endemic to many parts of the world and will probably remain a threat to human health and animal welfare unless stronger intervention measures are implemented. A first step for limiting disease spread would be implementation of mandatory testing of dogs before interstate or international movement.

Martha E. Hensel, Maria Negron, and Angela M. Arenas-Gamboa;

Frequency of five disease-causing genetic mutations in a large mixed-breed dog population

A large and growing number of inherited genetic disease mutations are now known in the dog. Frequencies of these mutations are typically examined within the breed of discovery, possibly in related breeds, but nearly always in purebred dogs. No report to date has examined the frequencies of specific genetic disease mutations in a large population of mixed-breed dogs.

Leptospirosis in Puppies from Puerto Rico in Vermont

Ten puppies have been imported to our region from Puerto Rico. One has been confirmed and several others are suspected to have leptospirosis. This means there is risk of further transmission to animals and persons in contact with the puppies. This multistate investigation is ongoing.

Tuberculosis in a Rescue Dog from Turkey

Dr. Paula Krimer
Athens Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory

Recently, a rescue dog imported from Turkey was submitted for necropsy to the University of Georgia Athens Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory with an antemortem diagnosis of chronic hepatitis. PCR of necropsy lesions was positive for mycobacteria, which were subsequently genetically identified as Mycobacterium bovis.

Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering on Behavior in Dogs

Although there are scattered reports in the literature of apparently adverse effects of spaying and neutering on canine behavior, there are very few quantitative studies and most of these have employed behavioral measures of unknown reliability and validity…
Deborah L. Duffy, Ph.D., and James A. Serpell, Ph.D., Center for the Interaction of Animals and Society, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania

Behavioral and Physical Effects of Spaying and Neutering Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris)

Behavioral and Physical Effects of Spaying and Neutering Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris)

Spaying and neutering domestic dogs is generally accepted as a relatively benign procedure conducted on millions of dogs each year. The view of spaying and neutering as benign and perhaps even beneficial to dogs has been based on extremely limited scientific study of how gonadectomy affects dog behavior and physiology…

Parvene Farhoody & M. Christine Zink
2010, Hunter College

Veterinary Medicine and Science: Leptospira interrogans, Toxoplasma gondii and Trypanosoma cruzi

Serological survey of Leptospira interrogans, Toxoplasma gondii and Trypanosoma cruzi in free roaming domestic dogs and cats from a marginated rural area of Yucatan Mexico

Antonio Ortega-Pacheco, Eugenia Guzmán-Marín, Karla Y. Acosta-Viana, Ignacio Vado-Solís, Bertha Jiménez-Delgadillo, Maria Cárdenas-Marrufo,Carlos Pérez-Osorio, Marilyn Puerto-Solís, and Matilde Jiménez-Coello

2017, Veterinary Medicine and Science

Gonadectomy effects on the risk of immune disorders in the dog: a retrospective study - BMC 2016

Gonadectomy is one of the most common procedures performed on dogs in the United States. Neutering has been shown to reduce the risk for some diseases although recent reports suggest increased prevalence for structural disorders and some neoplasias. The relation between neuter status and autoimmune diseases has not been explored…

Original link: http://bmcvetres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12917-016-0911-5

Rabies in Dog Imported from Egypt with Falsified Rabies Vaccination Cert. - VA, 2015

Rabies in a Dog Imported from Egypt with a Falsified Rabies Vaccination Certificate — Virginia, 2015

Original link: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6449a2.htm

Canine Brucella Imported to Alberta, Canada from Southern US and Mexico Rescue Dogs

Brucella canis, an infectious disease rarely diagnosed in Alberta has been identified in dogs imported from the Southern US /Mexico region to the Calgary area.  A team from University of Calgary Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (UCVM) is leading a group of experts to define the problem and provide guidelines for managing animals who have tested positive or who have been exposed to dogs carrying Brucella canis.

APHIS Regulations on the Importation of Live Dogs for Resale

This section of the FEDERAL REGISTER contains regulatory documents having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed to and codified in the Code of Federal Regulations, which is published under 50 titles pursuant to 44 U.S.C. 1510.

Human and Animal Factors Related to the Relinquishment of Dogs and Cats

Human and Animal Factors Related to the Relinquishment of Dogs and Cats in 12 Selected Animal Shelters in the United States

M. D. Salman; College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University
John G. New, Jr.; College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee
Janet M. Scarlett; New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University
Philip H. Kris; School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California at Davis
Rebecca Ruch-Gallie and Suzanne Hetts; College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University

AVSAB Position Statement on Breed-Specific Legislation

The American Veterinary Society of Animal Behavior (AVSAB) is concerned about the propensity of various communities’ reliance on breed-specific legislation as a tool to decrease the risk and incidence of dog bites to humans.

The AVSAB’s position is that such legislation—often called breed-specific legislation (BSL) - is ineffective, and can lead to a false sense of community safety as well as welfare concerns for dogs identified (often incorretly) as belonging to specific breeds.

Shelter Dogs as Sentinels for Trypanosoma cruzi Transmission

Chagas disease, an infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is increasingly diagnosed among humans in the southern United States. We assessed the exposure of shelter dogs in Texas to T. cruzi; seroprevalence across diverse ecoregions was 8.8%. Canine serosurveillance is a useful tool for public health risk assessment.

A Healthier Respect for Ovaries

In summary, we found female Rottweilers who kept their ovaries for at least 6 years were 4.6 times more likely to reach exceptional longevity (i.e. live >30 % longer than average) than females with the shortest ovary exposure. Our results support the notion that how long females keep their ovaries determines how long they live.

AVMA: Mandatory spay/neuter a bad idea

The AVMA does not support regulations or legislation mandating spay/neuter of privately owned, non-shelter dogs and cats. Although spaying and neutering helps control dog and cat populations, mandatory approaches may contribute to pet owners avoiding licensing, rabies vaccination and veterinary care for their pets, and may have other unintended consequences.

Golden Retriever Study Suggests Neutering Affects Dog Health

Neutering, and the age at which a dog is neutered, may affect the animal’s risk for developing certain cancers and joint diseases, according to a new study of golden retrievers by a team of researchers at the University of California, Davis.

Health and Behavior Problems in Dogs and Cats After Adoption from Animal Shelter

To characterize health and behavior problems in dogs and cats 1 week and 1 month after adoption from animal shelters and identify factors associated with the likelihood that owners of adopted animals would visit a veterinarian.

Rabid Puppy Imported Into Vermont Shelter

Following the importation of a rabid puppy into Vermont and in anticipation of the upcoming holiday season when many Vermonters may be taking steps to add new animal members to their families, the
Vermont Agency of Agriculture, Vermont Department of Health and the Vermont Veterinary Medical Association urge Vermonters to exercise due diligence when adopting a new dog or cat…

Rabies in a Dog Imported from Iraq—New Jersey, June 2008

Rabies in a Dog Imported from Iraq—New Jersey, June 2008

Puerto Rican Dog Import Tragedy

More than 100 dogs from Puerto Rico died in Florida after being sent there for adoption, most from distemper and parvovirus. They were to be offered for adoption in several PetSmart stores as part of an adoption contest. Winners of the contest would receive $100,000 and a second grant of $25,000 to be awarded to the shelter with largest adoption participation.

The Bushnell FL Incident 2010

An in-depth report on the Puerto Rican Dog Import Tragedy, where more than 100 dogs died in Florida after being sent there for adoption.

Society for Theriogenology Position on Mandatory Spay-Neuter in the Canine and Feline

The Boards of Directors of the Society for Theriogenology and the American College of Theriogenologists explain their opposition to mandatory spay-neuter, and why they believe thee decision to spay or neuter a pet must be made on a case by case basis, taking into consideration the pet’s age, breed, sex, intended use, household environment and temperament.

For those interested in researching this topic themselves, there is an extensive list (eight pages!) of valuable references included.

Lifetime ovary exposure and exceptional longevity in dogs

Exploring mechanisms of sex differences in longevity: lifetime ovary exposure and exceptional longevity in dogs

Aging Cell, September 2009.

David J. Waters1,2, Seema S. Kengeri1, Beth Clever1, Julie A. Booth1, Aimee H. Maras1, Deborah L. Schlittler1, and Michael G. Hayek3

1 Center for Exceptional Longevity Studies, Gerald P. Murphy Cancer Foundation, West Lafayette, IN, USA
2 The Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences and The Center on Aging and the Life Course, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
3 P&G Pet Care, Lewisburg, OH, USA

Importation of dogs into the United States: risks from rabies and other zoonotic diseases

J. H. McQuiston, T. Wilson, S. Harris, R. M. Bacon, S. Shapiro, I Trevino, J. Sinclair, G. Galland, and N. Marano, 2008

Understanding Animal Companion Surplus in the United States: Relinquishment of Nonadoptables to Anim

by Philip H. Kass, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California; John C. New, Jr., College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee; Janet M. Scarlett, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University; Mo D. Salman, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University

Characteristics of Shelter-Relinquished Animals and Their Owners Compared With Animals and Their Own

2000 by John C. New, Jr., College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee; M. D. Salman and Mike King, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University; Janet M. Scarlett, New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University; Philip H. Kass, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California—Davis; Jennifer M. Hutchison, Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia

Border Puppies and Public Health, LA County Veterinary Public Health, “Puppy Mills go Global”

Puppy mills go global ( Winter, 2009/2010)

Determining the Best Age at which to Spay or Neuter: An Evidence -Based Analysis

by Margaret Root-Kustritz, DVM PhD, University of Minnesota, Discoveries (Spring, 2008)

Australian Veterinary Association position on mandatory spay/neuter

Position paper opposing mandatory spay/neuter based on US and Australian outcomes. Instead of failed policy, Australian veterinarians recommend voluntary spay/neuter and emphasis on dealing with unowned cat population. (December, 2007)

The Long Term Effects of Spay/Neuter in Dogs

This researched paper offers a retrospective look at the long-term health effects of sterilizing dogs and includes a very thorough bibliography referencing scientific research papers on the topic. (May, 2007)

Smuggled Puppies a Concern to California

June/July 2006
U.S. Customs and Border Protection; Elysa Cross, Public Affairs Specialist

Rates of Euthanasia and Adoptions for Dogs and Cats in Michigan Animal Shelters

Paul C. Bartlett, Michigan State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Andrew Bartett, Michigan State University, Sally Walshaw, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Stephen Halstead, State Veterinarian, Michigan Dept. of Agriculture: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 8 (2), 97 -104 Copyright 2005, Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Inc.

A Community Approach to Dog Bite Prevention

American Veterinary Medical Association: Task for on Canine Aggression and Human-Canine Interaction. (June, 2001)

Cornell study of tethering versus pen confinement

Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science


The Unintended Consequences of a Ban on Humane Horse Slaughter (processing) in the United States

Produced by the Animal Welfare Council: May 15, 2006


Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin (rbST): A Safety Assessment

by Drs. Richard Raymond, Connie W. Bales, Dale E. Bauman, David Clemmons, Ronald Kleinman, Dante Lanna, Stephen Nickerson, and Kristen Sejrsen; American Dairy Science Association, Canadian Society of Animal Science, and the American Society of Animal Science (July 2009, updated March 2010).